T cells are well known for their roles in combating cancer and infection, but chronic exposure to antigens and inflammation can cause T cells to enter a state of “exhaustion.” Exhausted T cells lose critical effector functions including cytokine production, the ability to proliferate and memory T cell differentiation is also compromised. Exhausted T cells also express inhibitory receptors and become unresponsive to IL-7 and/or IL-15-driven self-renewal. This progression toward T cell exhaustion results in diminished control of chronic infection or cancer. Exhaustion can occur in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations and the phenotypes of these subsets is somewhat heterogeneous. Nonetheless, T cell exhaustion is reversible and various immuno-oncology interventions have been examined or are currently being evaluated in order to improve outcomes in cancer and chronic infection.
Flow Cytometry Blog
Immunophenotyping is a commonly used flow cytometry method for discriminating between different cell subsets based on intracellular and cell surface markers. A critical parameter for running a successful immunophenotyping assay is to ensure that you are analyzing live cells. Dead cells are not useful for data analysis and can do strange things when stained.
Q is for Quality - QA, QC and Flow Cytometry
How do clinical flow cytometry labs ensure that the data they generate is accurate, reproducible, and conforms to regulatory requirements? They use quality management systems, including quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC). Some scientists seem to use these terms interchangeably, but what do they really mean and why are they important to flow cytometry?
Have you ever wondered why certain experiments are done under GLP (good laboratory practices) conditions? GLP is a term that is used frequently in preclinical research, and are a set of guidelines that act as a management control for research laboratories and organizations to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of chemicals (including pharmaceuticals) for non-clinical safety tests. Sometimes it’s hard to understand when and why protocols must be done under GLP conditions. In general, GLP conditions must be maintained when an experimental drug or biologic may be used ultimately in humans and will need to be evaluated by regulators like the FDA.
The flow cytometry market is filled with an abundance of products for mouse and human samples. But what if your studies use different species? Fortunately, many antibodies for standard cell markers can work on multiple species, and more species-specific reagents are becoming available.
Posted in Toxicology & Safety