T cells and NK cells deploy potent immune defenses through the release of lysosomal granule contents such as granzymes and perforin. Lysosomes containing cytotoxic granules move to the cell surface and fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents upon specific receptor engagement between a target cell and cytotoxic cell. This lysosomal fusion results in lysosomal-associated membrane glycoproteins (LAMPs), including CD107a (LAMP-1) and CD107b (LAMP-2), to be presented on the cell surface.Read the full article »
Flow cytometry is an appealing technique because it enables users to analyze multiple cell types in a single experiment. In the early days of flow cytometry, when cytometers had one or two lasers, and only a limited number of fluorescent probes existed, complex staining panels may have had only four colors.Read the full article »
Flow cytometry is a well-established approach used in numerous clinical assays across the globe. But like most assays used in a clinical setting, flow cytometry assays typically need to be validated before they can be used for diagnostic or clinical research purposes.
Assay validation is done to demonstrate that a method is accurate, specific, reproducible and robust over a designated range of measurement. Flow cytometry is considered an analytical method, and according to the FDA, flow cytometry assays need to meet specific analytical method validation criteria. A validated assay can then be used in situations requiring GLP/GCP (good laboratory/clinical practice) compliance, like a clinical trial or routine diagnostic test.Read the full article »