Immunotherapy research is a rapidly expanding field in which dozens of monoclonal antibodies are being developed to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases. The mechanism of action (MOA) used by an antibody to mediate a therapeutic response must be defined in order for a candidate antibody to advance down the preclinical development pipeline. Defining the MOA is necessary to fulfilling regulatory requirements for antibodies used in clinical trials and also critical to understanding if the antibody may cause any detrimental side effects.Read the full article »
Intracellular Cytokine Staining (ICS) is an assay used across the biomedical research landscape from basic research to preclinical studies and clinical trials. ICS can allow you to simultaneously measure the expression of surface markers on a cell, like CD4 or CD8 as well as the expression of cytokines produced inside the cell like IL-2 or IL-17. This helps scientists understand not only that the cytokine is present in their sample but also to identify which cell phenotype is producing that specific cytokine.
Take a look at these questions to see how ICS can take your research project to the next level.Read the full article »
Many therapeutic drugs and biologics under development target the immune system to mediate their effects. These molecules may only be needed at very low concentrations to trigger the desired response, and understanding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of an experimental biologic or drug is instrumental to determining the appropriate dose range to use for clinical trials.Read the full article »